When creating .NET Core and ASP.NET Core applications, programmers have many options for data storage and retrieval available. You’ll need to choose the option that fits your application’s needs and your team’s development style. In this article, I’ll give you a few thoughts and caveats on data access in the new world of .NET Core.
Remember that an ASP.NET Core application can compile against the .NET Core framework or the full .NET framework. If you choose to use the full .NET framework, you’ll have all the same data access options that you had in the past. These options include low-level programming interfaces like ADO.NET and high-level ORMs like the Entity Framework.
If you want to target .NET Core, you have fewer options available today. However, because .NET Core is still new, we will see more options appear over time.
Bertrand Le Roy recently posted a comprehensive list of Microsoft and third-party .NET Core packages for data access. The list shows NoSQL support for Azure DocumentDB, RavenDB, MongoDB and Redis. For relational databases, you can connect to Microsoft SQL Server, PostgreSQL, MySQL and SQLite. You can choose Npoco, Dapper and the new Entity Framework Core as an ORM frameworks for .NET Core.
Because the Entity Framework is a popular data access tool for .NET development, we will take a closer look at the new version of EF Core.
On the surface, EF Core is like its predecessors, featuring an API with DbContext and DbSet classes. You can query a data source using LINQ operators like Where, Order By and Select.
Under the covers, however, EF Core is significantly different from previous versions of EF. The EF team rewrote the framework and discarded much of the architecture that had been around since version 1 of the project. If you’ve used EF in the past, you might remember there was an ObjectContext hiding behind the DbContext class plus an unnecessarily complex entity data model. The new EF Core is considerably lighter, which brings us to the discussion of pros and cons.
In the EF Core rewrite,you won't find an entity data model or EDMX design tool. The controversial lazy loading feature is not supported for now but is listed on the roadmap. The ability to map stored procedures to entity operations is not in EF Core, but the framework still provides an API for sending raw SQL commands to the database. This feature currently allows you to map only results from raw SQL into known entity types. Personally, I’ve found the ability to consume views from SQL Server to be too restrictive.
With EF Core, you can take a “code first” approach to database development by generating database migrations from class definitions. However, the only tooling to support a “database first” approach to development is a command line scaffolding tool that can generate C# classes from database tables. There are no tools in Visual Studio to reverse engineer a database or update entity definitions to match changes in a database schema. Model visualization is another feature on the future roadmap.
Like EF 6, EF Core supports popular relational databases, including SQL Server, MySQL, SQLite and PostgreSQL, but Oracle is currently not supported in EF Core.
EF Core is a cross-platform framework you can use on Linux, macOS and Windows. The new framework is considerably lighter than frameworks of the past and is also easier to extend and customize thanks to the application of the dependency inversion principle.
EF Core plans to extend the list of supported database providers beyond relational databases. Redis and Azure Table Storage providers are on the roadmap for the future.
One exciting new feature is the new in-memory database provider. The in-memory provider makes unit testing easier and is not intended as a provider you would ever use in production. In a unit test, you can configure EF Core to use the in-memory provider instead of writing mock objects or fake objects around a DbContext class, which can lead to considerably less coding and effort in testing.
EF Core is not a drop-in replacement for EF 6. Don’t’ consider EF Core an upgrade. Existing applications using the DbContext API of EF will have an easier time migrating to EF Core while applications relying on entity data models and ObjectContext APIs will need a rewrite. Fortunately, you can use previous versions of the Entity Framework with ASP.NET Core if you target the full .NET framework instead of .NET Core. Given some of the missing features of EF Core, you’ll need to evaluate the framework in the context of a specific application to make sure the new EF will be the right tool to use.